THE MINES OF SCOTLAND: A BIBLIOGRAPHY
It could be argued that if you want to research the mines of Scotland, all you would need are Landless 1993, Wilson 1921 and access to Google. The bibliography goes a little further. It lists some national grid references and some mines discovered after 1993. The mines are listed first by minerals and then by countries.
To save paper the bibliography is also available on a CD. Now this is very clever, if you have a computer you can search by author, publisher, title, subject etc. But of course, if you own a computer, you already know that.
*Lothian - the asterisk is to assist in computer searches. If you did a search for Lothian, you would find it every time it was listed. But if you search for *Lothian or even *Loth, this will take you directly to the list of Lothian mine references.
Again, to assist with computer searches, place names and mine have been recorded using both old and modern spellings.
Callendar and Macaulay Callendar, R M and Macaulay j, 1984 The Ancient Metal Mines of Islay. British Mining No 24 NMRS.
Barnett 1959 Barnett, G W T 1959 Lead in Islay, Contribution to the Future of Non-Ferrous Metal Mining in Great Britain and Ireland. A Symposium. Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Brown 1980 Brown, Willian C, 1980 Clackmannanshire a guide to historical sources. Forth Naturalist and Historian.
Green and Todd Green, David I and Todd, J Gordon 2000 Twenty Years in Minerals: Scotland. M&M (21) 9-27 illus.
GSG Grampian Speleological Group Bulletin
Haswell-Smith Haswell-Smith, Hamish, 1996 The Scottish Islands / A comprehensive guide to every Scottish Island. xxiii+423 pp, 165+ maps of each island, showing caves, numerous line drawing by the author. Canongate Books Ltd, Edinburgh. [A useful book with a lot of background information: Owner, Population [usually nil], Geology; History; Description and notes as to where I can anchor my “Gin Palace”.]
Hibbert Hibbert, Samuel second reprint 1931 A description of the Shetland Islands comprising an account of their scenery, antiquities, and superstitions. T & J Manson, Lerwick. Unfortunately the reprint omits much of the geological information and the pagination differs [vide Colin McLeod]. The 1st ed was 1822, Archibald Constable & Co Edinburgh and Hurst, Robinson & Co, London. It was reprinted 1891 T & J Manson, Lerwick.
Hunt Hunt, Robert 1887, reprinted 1978 A Historical Sketch of Brutish Mining. EP Publishing Company, Wakefield.
Knox 1798 Knox, John, 1798 A tour through the Highlands of Scotland & the Hebrides in MDCCLXXVI  pp 1-clxxii + First part 1- 276 + second part 1-104.
Laughlan Laughlan, William F, editor 1982 Northern Lights or a voyage in the Lighthouse Yacht to Nova Zembla and the Lord knows where in the summer of 1814 / Sir Walter Scott. Byway Books, Hawick.
Livingstone 2002 Livingstone, A 2002 Minerals of Scotland Past and Present. NMS Publications, Edinburgh.
M&M UK Journal of Mines and Minerals, formerly called Rockbottom.
MacGregor MacGregor, A A 1950 Somewhere in Scotland. 234, 54 plates, reprinted ed. Robert Hale, London
MacGregor 1972 MacGregor, Murray 1972 2nd ed Excursion Guide to the Geology of Arran. Geological Society of Glasgow, The University, Glasgow.
Martin Martin, Martin 1716 A Description of the Western Islands.... 392, maps, 2nd ed. A Bell et al London. [reprinted recently for $19.95 + post]. Also a second edition by James Thin, The Mercat Press, Edinburgh, with original pagination.
Martin c1695 Martin, Martin c 1695 A Description of the Western Islands of Scotland. Including a voyage to St Kilda by the same author and A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland by Sir Donald Munro. With an introduction [pub] Donald J Macleod 1994 Birlinn Ltd, Edinburgh. 540, SB
NMRS Northern Mine Research Society
Omand 1972 Omand, Donald 1972 The Caithness Book. Highland Printers, Inverness 17,
Pennant 1774 Pennant, Thomas 1774 A Tour in Scotland [in] MDCCLXIX  tros tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur [sic]. Third edition. W Eyres, Warrington. 2 vols 400 many illus, many hand coloured. reprinted 1979 Melven Press, Perth.
Pennant Pennant, Thomas 1772 A Tour in Scotland 379
Russell 1919 Russell, A 1919 Report on the Strontian mines, Sunart estate, Strontian, Argyllshire. British Geological Survey Records, Edinburgh.
Salvona & Young Salvona, J & Young, I, 1988 Scottish Cave Guides / The Southern Highlands. 34, S
Tindall Tindall, Jemima, 1981 Scottish Island Hopping / A Handbook for the Independent Traveller. Sphere Books Ltd, London
Valentine Valentine, Easton S 1912 Forfarshire. Cambridge County Geographies. University Press, Cambridge
VR Vertical Range - the vertical difference between the highest and lowest point in a cave, where the highest point is not necessarily the entrance.
vc very close? [next to a NGR]
vc vice county
Williams Williams, John 1810 2nd ed [first ed 1790] The Natural History of the Mineral Kingdom relative to the strata of coal, mineral veins, and the prevailing strata of the globe. The second edition has an appendix, containing a more extended view of mineralogy and Geology. Illustrated with engravings by James Millar. 2 vols xi + 562, 2 engravings & 597. Edinburgh, Bell & Bradfute and W Laing. Mr Williams was a Welsh miner, a soldier in the Dutch service, a manager at Leadhills, tackman at Carlops, engaged by the Earl of Moray to search [without success] for coal at Dunrobin etc etc.
Wilson 1921 Wilson, G V, 1921 Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, (17) – The Lead Zinc Copper and Nickel Ores of Scotland. HMSO, Edinburgh.
Volume numbers are underlined thus: 1
Numbered issues are given brackets: (2)
Un-numbered pages are given square brackets: 
Number pages are given thus: 234,
Anon 1931 Great Britain Mines Department. Catalogue of plans of abandoned mines 5 (Scotland) Arranged alphabetically by county, there are 13 pages devoted to Clackmannanshire. Information given includes name of the mine, minerals worked and names of seams, holders of plans, etc. source Brown 1980
Hunt 162-166 A good historical account of the history of mining in Scotland from 1562 to 1661
Landless, J G 1993 3rd edition. A Gazetteer to the Metal Mines of Scotland. The Wanlockhead Museum Trust, Occ Pub No 1.
Wilson, G V & Flett, J S 1921 Mem Geol Surv Spec Rep Min Resources (17) 160, illus. The lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland.
BY MATERIAL / METAL
Callendar, Ron M 2006 The Louisa Mine revisited. British Mining (80) 88-93, 9 figs.
Haswell-Smith 237 Asbestos bearing rock was found here in 1960s. (SCARP Island)
BARYTES / BARITES
The modern spelling is Barites, but the older term Barytes have been used when quoting original sources.
See Foss Mine, Aberfeldy, Perthshire
Cairns, W J and Partners 1980 Dresser Minerals International Inc. Barytes Mining Development, Foss, Perthshire, Scotland. Environmental Impact Assessment Vol 1 Summary.
Birsely Brae, medieval Coal Mine NT 392 728 Landranger 66
A triangle of land about 1.2 acres south of Lammermoor Terrace off the A1, forming part of the estates of Prestongrange. Crae, John 2001 Caves, Cairns, Tunnels, Passages and Pits, Pt 2. GSG Ser 4 1 (1) 40
Cadell, Henry M, 1925 The Rocks of West Lothian / An Account of the Geological and Mining History of the West Lothian District. London, Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd. Chapters include: III About Coal and Limestone; XX The Bo’ness-Coal-field; XXI The Bathgate Coalfield; XXIII The Coal Measures; XXVIII Seven Centuries of Coal-mining; Mining at Bo’ness since 1760.
Dron, Robert W 1921 The Coal-Fields of Scotland. Glasgow, John Smith & Son Ltd. 135 pp, 18 plates. HB
Williams 2 302-314 Coal of Scotland. 315-318 Coal field of Hurlet. 319-321 Quarrelton Coal. 321-323 Riccarton Coal.
Coppermine Path NS 797 979 Landranger 57 a track near an old copper mine.
Watson 1995 The Ochils /Placenames, History and Tradition. Perth and Kinross District Libraries. 45
Knox 1787 p 125 copper mining at Kisserne and Applecross.
Pennant 1774 353 copper ore discovered at Wick. ND 36 51 1” OS 16
Lochcarron. NG 849 432 Remains of a copper mine.
Haswell-Smith 340 Copper ore is to be found at Sand Lodge on Mainland, Shetland
Hutton, Guthrie 2006 Mining: from Kirkintilloch to Clackmannan and Stirling to Slammanan. Stenlake [not seen]
Williams 1 368-9 Ochil Hills – silver lead, cobalt etc.
Williams 2 419-420 Copper in Scotland. Ochils, Gourock, Currie, 5 mile west from Edinburgh, Sandlodge in Shetland, Conningsburgh Cliffs.
The short-lived gold rush of 1869 was started by the finding of alluvial gold in the Kildonan Burn NC 92 22 Explorer 444 Suisgill Burn NC 90 26 Explorer 444, and Torrish Burn which are tributaries of the Helmsdale River. The presence of gold was confirmed by R N Gilchrist of Helmsdale. This prospector, with much experience gained in the Australian gold fields, suspected, sought and found gold in his own native valley. The gold originates from the magmatised Moine metasediments and has been concentrated by glacial erosion and reworking of the glacial debris by the streams. Deep weathering prior to glaciation may have aided the release of the gold. The original diggings were stopped by the Duke of Sutherland on account of the damage that was being done to the fishing in the Helmsdale by the silt carried from the diggings. The diggers may also have been partial to salmon and deer! Today the gold is panned on a recreational basis with the permission of the estate.
Adamson, G F S [1st ed 1988, 2nd ed 1991] At the end of the rainbow / The occurrence of gold in Scotland. 101 pp, SB. Beaconsfield, Goldspear (UK) Ltd. Lists all the sites for alluvial gold in Scotland – I guess about a hundred. Most appear on the fourth parallel. Over 2 pages of references. An important reference book.
Callender, R M 1990 Gold in Britain 64 pp illus. Covers, Scotland, Wales, Devon and Cornwall etc. Interesting theory - all gold is found on the 4o West of longitude meridian. [p xiii]. pub Goldspear (UK) Ltd, Box 203, Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire HP9 2TQ
Fraser, Duncan, 1982 Historic Fife. Melven Press, Perth. 34 At Largo Law, there used to be a rich mine of gold on this hill. NO 42 01 Landranger 57
Hunt 169-172, In 1153 the Abbey of Dunfermline was tithed all the gold found in Fife and Fothrif [sic]. Gilbert de Moravia is said to have discovered gold in Duriness [sic], in Sutherland in 1245. During the reign of James IV, the gold mines of Crawford Moor [NS 96 20 Explorer 329] were discovered. In 1526 a lease was granted to Joachim Hochstetter, Quintin de Lawitz, Gerard Sterk, Antony de Nikets.
Hunt 173 refers to gold produced at Helmsdale, Sutherland in the years 1868 577 oz. 1869 17 oz.
Martin 339-340 gold dust in River Lochy near Lochaber NN 14 92 Landranger 50. “That there have been Gold Mines in Scotland is clear, from the Manuscripts mention’d by Dr Nicholson, now Bishop of Carlise, in his late Scots Hist Library [sic].
Menzies, John 1894 Our Town and Some of its People: Sketches of Fife Folk. London, T Fisher Unwin. Printout from Ebay. Includes stories about Lomond Hills gold mining.
Trewin, N H and Hurst, A 1993 Excursion Guide to the Geology of East Sutherland and Caithness. Geological Society of Aberdeen. Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh. 32-35, 167
Williams 2 364-366 Gold in Scotland. Bulmer’s Workings at Leadhills and Elvanfoot.
Whiteriggs Iron Mines NO 80 74 Landranger 45 near Arbuthnott, south of Stonehaven
A number of mines and kilns left over from lime and ironstone workings of early 19th century can be discovered in the locality of Vicar’s Bridge. In 1830 the water draining out of one of the disused mine entrances was found to contain sufficient chemicals to be the attributed cure for a staggering number and variety of diseases.
Swan, Adam 1987 Clackmannan and the Ochils / An Illustrated Architectural Guide. Scottish Academic Press / RIAS
Williams 1 375 Iron works in Scotland. 378 Iron on the coast St Andrews to Montrose. 378 Iron between Stonehaven and Aberdeen. 378 Iron at Ord of Caithness. 379 Ord and Old Wick. 379 Coast of Caithness, Girnigo and Ackergill. 379 Bog ore all over Caithness. 379 Iron wrought on the main island of Orkney. 380 iron at Kissern [=Kishorn]. 380-381 iron on Islay. 381 iron at Girvan in Ayrshire, on the sea-coast of Galloway, particular Colvend, Ochil Hills, 382 iron on the bank of the Devon [river], at Noblehouse, 383 Firth of Forth,
Williams 2 437-438 Iron in Scotland.
Coll - Haswell-Smith 98 Lead was mined in the south of the island in early times.
Crae, John. 2001 Caves, Cairns, Tunnels, Passages and Pits, Part 2. GSG Ser 4 1 (1) 40
Aka Bellsgrove Lead Mines in Allt Feith Dhomhnuill, Sunart.
Crae, John. 2001 Caves, Cairns, Tunnels, Passages and Pits, Part 2. GSG Ser 4 1 (1) 40
Bornite in the Strontian area, south west of Fort William. Pb was mined there during the Napolenic wars.
Islay - Pb Martin 239-240
Glenesk - see Michie, Greta, under Montrose
Martin, 339, Islay, Skye, Lismore etc.
Miller 1897 430-431 Parish of Sandwick on Orkney. Pb mine “I have since learned from the “Statistical Account of the Parish of Sandwick, that the working of the mine penetrate into the rock for about a hundred yards, but it has been long abandoned, “as a speculation which did not pay”.
Palmer, William T, 1947 The Verge of the Scottish Highlands. Robert Hale Ltd, London 148-149 “Pass of Ballater [vc NO 360 970 Landranger 37] ... The harvesters’ path swings to the right, and follows the Glen of the Gairn, at first fairly high above the river, and later quite close to it. At Abergain farm, some lead mines were discovered. Several excavations or test pits were dug, the edges and tips of which are still to be found. About eighty years ago a small quantity of ore was got out, and sufficient silver to supply a set of buttons for a vest to the Laird of Monaltrie. When a practice trail was made, however, the expert miners from Cornwall proved that neither lead nor silver existed in sufficient quantity to pay anybody but company promoters floating but not working the mines. According to Dr Macgillivray, the granite quartz containing the lead ore had dispersed in its crystals of fluor spar (fluoride of calcium), mostly of a beautiful wine-yellow colour, but also of various tints of blue and purple”.
Palmer, William T, 1947 The Verge of the Scottish Highlands. Robert Hale Ltd, London 264-265 “Lochan-kin Doan [vcNJ 270 085 Landranger 37] ...The iron and manganese mines over the pass, were opened 14 April 1841, and were first worked on a small scale, with a dozen men digging, by the Duke of Gordon. When the firm of Cookson, of Newcastle, began, they at once heaved up a mill for grinding the manganese, with bothies for the accommodation of the miners. The machinery was made in Aberdeen, and there was great difficulty in hauling it up the hill from Corgarff. The horses that were yoked into it could not keep their feet. The minister of Corgarff, however, gave them a bull which kept his ground, and thus got the loads to the top. Mining was carried on for six years, and a reached a depth of 85 feet. The material was hauled to Speymouth, 45 miles away for either treatment and shipment. So long as the price kept up to £8 per ton, the mine was successful, but price broke to £3, the mine was closed.”
Pennant 1774 349 Lead mine at Sandside NC 95 66 Landranger 11 Explorer 449 Caithness
Williams 2 451-454 Lead in Scotland. Leadhills, Wanlockhead, Gilkerscleugh, 5 mile north of Leadhills, Black Craig, Galloway, Tyndrum in Argyle, Strontian, and Islay.
Herman, Jeremy S and Smith, Stuart 1995 Pipistrelles hibernating in an underground site in Dumfriesshire. Scottish Bats (3) 18 no location given – limestone mine.
McAdam, A D, and Clarkson, E N K, 1986 Lothian Geology / an excursion guide. Edinburgh Geological Society. 208 The limestones of the Bathgate Hills have been extensively worked in the past for agricultural use both by quarrying and mining. 216 Hillhouse Quarry and Mine. Park at Beecraig Visitors’ Centre (006 746). The strata dip west at 30-40º and consequently the stoop and room workings north of the road, which are still open, slope very steeply underground. There have been roof collapses in recent years, some of which have caused subsidence in the overlying road.
Peach, B N et al 1910 The Geology of the Neighbourhood of Edinburgh. Mem Geol Surv . Edinburgh HMSO. 353 Limestone is obtained Burdiehouse by mining the outcrop and at Straiton by a shaft 50 fms deep. At West Houses it is being mined in a day level by the Lothian Coal Company. 355 The mine (day-level) near the Avon was mainly used in providing limestone for the Kinneil iron furnace. Queensferry, Livingstone and East Calder. The Burdiehouse Limestone is now mined at Harburnhead, Newpark and East Calder, and the rock produced is used or iron-smelting purposes, but in the past it was extensively mined at Dundas Lime Works, Port Edgar. Inland it is quarried and mined around Parkhead and North Newton. To the south-west it was worked along a line of shallow pits between Dechmont and Livingstone for local purposes. 356 Near West Torphin, Murieston Water, it is mined by Messrs W Baird & Co Ltd for use in the Gartsherrie blast furnaces.
Lochaline Silica Sand Mine NM 680 450 Landranger 49 Morven
Marked `mine’ on Landranger 49
The mine has been in operation since the 1940's, extracting the purest silica sand in the UK, which is used in the manufacture of fine crystal and other specialist glass, and also for silicon carbide and domestic and chemical ovenware.
There are 48 km of tunnels that have been created under 150 m of basalt lavas. Fossils of animals that lived during the Cretaceous period can be found here.
The mine employs twelve people, three of whom use dump trucks to move sand from within the mine to a storage area on the surface. The floor of the workings is soft, wet and badly rutted.
Martin, Paula ND Exploring Morven. Morven Heritage Society. not seen
McIntyre, Andrew 2006 Mines, Machinery and Minerals / Andrew McIntyre goes underground in Morven. The Scots Magazine, 164 (5) May 486-494
Glenesk - see Michie, Greta, under Montrose
King Jamie’s Silver Mines NS 897 705 Landranger 65 Hilderston
Crae, John. 2001 Caves, Cairns, Tunnels, Passages and Pits, Part 2. GSG Ser 4 1 (1) 40
Watten Silver Mines ND 242 545 (centre of village) Explorer 450 Watten
Pennant 1774 346 “ N.B. In the history of the family of Sutherland, mention is made of Sir Paul Menzies, Provost of Aberdeen, who discovered a silver mine in Sutherland, and found it to be rich, but death prevented his working it. It seems he covered the place where he found it, and no person of skill observed it since that time. It probable that Creig nargod is the place where this mine may be, and that this discovery was cause of this appellation; for I can see no other reason for that name of designation. Person of skill ought to examine these bounds. Creig nargod, or the silver hill, is above Cullmalie”.
Pennant 1774 366 Creign Airgid or Silver Hill, parish of Watten, Sutherland, supposed to be a silver mine. See above.
Cadell, Henry M, 1925 The Rocks of West Lothian / An Account of the Geological and Mining History of the West Lothian District. London, Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd. Chapter XXX The Hilderston Silver-mine.
Williams 2 391-392 Silver at Alva, Sterlingshire
Luing: Haswell-Smith 59
Seil: Haswell-Smith 65-66
Seil, Slate Quarries at: Murray 1805 24
Pennant 1774 327 “ ... at Loch-Eribol plenty of iron stone and something like a tin mine”. Explorer 446/447
Abergain Mine NO 355 975 Landranger 44 Green and Todd 16. Lead mine noted for wulfenite.
Anon ND c1975 A Guide to Glenesk Folk Museum 4 It was Sir David Lindsay of Edzell who brought miners to Glenesk. In 1593, at Sir David’s invitation, came Bernard Fechtenburg, a German mining expert and latter another German, Hans Ziegkler. 6 The mine at Dalborg seems to have been a productive one, and the heavy iron yett or gate, at Invermark Castle is believed to have been made of iron smelted at “Bonnie Katie” near Water of Tarf.
Dorward 48 Gilfummen. A source of lead in bygone times. Edward writes in 1676 that the “miners were digging deeper ever day”; but like all the other attempts at mineral exploitation in the glen, this lead to no profitable outcome. Remains of a mining complex include the open entry to the mineshaft, are still to be seen at the cliff at Gilfummen.
Valentine, Easton S 1912 Forfarshire. Cambridge County Geographies. University Press, Cambridge. 67-68 In the reign of James V, Robert Seton writes, “Some report that at Clovo, at the head of South Esk, some eight miles from Killiemuir, there is found gold and silver”. And in his description of the county written in 1678, Edward says: “As to the metals contain in the bowels of this country it is affirmed that different kinds of them are to be found in the valley of North Esk. The great-grandfather of the present proprietor of Edzell discovered a mine of iron at the wood of Dalbog, and built a smelting-house for preparing the metal. The gentleman’s grandson found some lead ore near Innermark, which he refined. The son of this latter found a very rich mine of lead on the banks of the Mark, and about a mile up the valley from the castle of Innermark. In a mountain of hard rock where eighteen miners are digging every day, they have come to a large vein of ore, which, when the lead is extracted and properly refined, yields a fifty-fourth part of silver. The vein seems to be inexhaustible”. Elsewhere we read that Sir David Lindsay of Edzell in 1593 discovered in Glen Esk two mines of copper.
Auchosnich Mine NM 445 672 Landranger 47. Worked in 1753 Dye, John et al 2001 The Sunart Oakwoods / A Report on their History and Archaeology. Sunart Oakwoods Research Group. 79
Starkey R E, and Hubbard N, 1998 Anilite, with botallackite and clinoatacamite, from Castletown Mine, Lochgilphead, Scotland. Jl Russell Society 7 (1) 38-39
*Strontian Mines: (see also Sunart Mines below)
NGRs from Landranger 40
Strontian Village – NM 815 617
Shafts (dis) 6 at NM 860 665
Gallery (dis) NM 833 655
Shafts (dis) 6 at NM 833 659
Shafts (dis) 3 at NM 824 660
The lead mines at the east end of Loch Sunart, NM 84 61 , were operating in 1720’s, soon after Sir Alexander Murray of Stanhope purchased from the estate. Although they were subsequently worked under many proprietors, well into the twentieth century, it is generally thought that they never showed the expected profits.
Dye, John et al 2001 The Sunart Oakwoods / A Report on their History and Archaeology. Sunart Oakwoods Research Group. 78
Corrantee Mine is located 4 km north of Strontian village. The working comprise an ancient opencut in the headwaters of the Allt Tarsuin, a number of small levels driven onto the vein from the stream, and a low level, which was a mid to late nineteenth century venture (Russell 1919).
Crae, John. 2001 Caves, Cairns, Tunnels, Passages and Pits, Part 2. GSG Ser 4 1 (1) 40
Whitesmith Mine is named after John Whitesmith, an English miner who worked at Strontian in the early eighteenth century. It worked via a shallow adit driven from the east, which is linked to a deep shaft, marked as Whim Shaft, Russell 1919. The eastern remains of the mine, including the adit entrance, were destroyed by quarrying in the 1980s. An ancient opencut about 300 m long, flanked to the south by a veneer of mineralised spoil remain to the west.
Ferguson, Malcolm 1894 A trip from Callander to Staffa and Iona with brief descriptive sketches of the route by sea and land, and the sacred rock-bound Isle of I-Colm-Kill. 164+iv pp, frontis of the author. John Leng & Co, Edinburgh. 30 Iron Works, Loch Etive/Taynuilt.
Green, David I and McCallum, David 2005 Kainosite-(Y) from the Strontian Mines, Highland Region, Scotland. M&M (26) 23-26, illus. The Strontian Mines are well known to mineralogists. The include the type localities for Strontianite and Brewsterite, and have produced superb specimens of the Barium Zeolite Harmotome. The first records of lead mining date from the 1720s and the first report by a visiting mineralogist from 1764 (Livingstone, 2002). Lead mining came to an end in the nineteenth century, but the North Sea oil boom gave the central group of mines a new lease of life when they were worked for barite.
Green and Todd 21-22
MacFadyen, Colin C J 1992 The Strontian Lead Mines SSI. Geological Conservation Review Interest: Mineralogy. Earth Science Site Documentation Series. 26, 33 plates, 11 figs.
Bornite in the Strontian area, south west of Fort William. Pb was mined there during the Napolenic wars.
M&M (1) 41 Strontian Mines: East to west they are: Fee Donald Mine; Bellsgrove Mine; Middleshop Mine; Whitesmith Mine; Corrantee Mine. The modern barite mine which opened in the 1980s obliterated most of the surface features of the Bellsgrove, Middleshop and Whitesmith mines.
M&M (7) 12 Whitesmith Mine.
Murray 1805 49, 334-335 Strontian, Lead Mines at:
Sunart Mines, see also Strontian Mines above.
A seam of coal at Camusban Burn, near Ardslignish, NM 565 615 , Landranger 47. Dye, John et al 2001 The Sunart Oakwoods / A Report on their History and Archaeology. Sunart Oakwoods Research Group. 81.
A large quantity of blasted rock close to the shore at Camusaine, NM 756 612 Landranger 47. Dye, John et al 2001 The Sunart Oakwoods / A Report on their History and Archaeology. Sunart Oakwoods Research Group. 81.
Swinlees Mine NS 289 528 Landranger 70.
Green and Todd 14 noted for its large masses of black copper sulphide djurleite
Nicholson, Dr Keith ND [post 1982] The Geology and History of the Lecht Iron-Manganese Mine, Tomintoul, Banffshire. Moray District Council. Museums Information Sheet, No 8. 4, location map. Largest manganese mine in Scotland worked 1730 to 1846. NJ 239 159 Landranger 36
The first mountaineers were the Cairngorm miners, who often with their families, from the mid-eighteenth century ascended the mountains in search of `pellucid stones’, ie the semi-precious Cairngorm stones, hexagonal quartz crystals of great beauty. In the early nineteenth century Farquharson of Invercauld was drawing two hundred pounds a years in rent from such mining, and occasional single crystals could fetch that sum. Though much mining would simply have been searching rock-falls in gullies, in some areas the ground was trenched to a depth of several feet. Ben Avon was a favourite area for search, and at the Meikle Eas burn on its southern slopes are the remains of mining works which were active about 1800. At an altitude of 2,800 feet, these works employed about 30 miners, but were not the highest habitation on the mountain:
By the burn side , above the `miners hut’ there is a `Poachers’ Cave’, capable of sheltering about half a dozen people. [A I McConnochie, The Eastern Cairngorms, in Cairngorm Club Jl 1 245]
Mitchell 1988 Scotland’s Mountains before the Mountaineers. Luath Press Ltd, Edinburgh. 65
Crockett, W S 1926 Berwickshire and Roxburghshire. Cambridge County Geographies. 81 Copper occurs in Longformacus, and upon the farm of Hoardweel, in Bunkle, but repeated digging operations never paid. Antimony is found at Liddesdale. A coarse alabaster or gypsum has been found at Chirnside, Greenlaw, and Kelso. Quicksilver has been got at Holehill, ironstone at Ayton, Mordingham, Jedburgh and Liddesdale.
Sir John Sinclair of Ulbaster employed Rudolph Eric Raspe to search for minerals on his land. After Raspe had settled in to Sir John’s spray-beaten castle on the Pentland Firth, he set forth and found masses of a bright and heavy mineral at Skinnet, 4 miles from Thurso.. But alas, Raspe was salting his finds with minerals which he brought with him from Cornwall. Hunt 104
In 1914 Captain W Murray Treipland reported the discovery of a large mineralised vein on Achanarras Hill ND 152 544 Explorer 151. The vein, which was about 6 feet wide at the surface, was found to run 45º to 50º north-east with a dip of between 70º and 85º to the north-east. It contained along with broken lumps of country rock, good amounts of galena and barytes, together with some calcite, pyrites and zinc blend (ZnS). This vein was also exploited during the First World War. Early trial pits proved the length of the mineralised vein to be at least 600 yards. A shaft was sunk for 120 feet but did not reach the bottom of the vein, whose average width over this distance was about 5 feet. Galleries were led off this shaft at 40 feet and 80 feet in order to work the lead. It was reckoned at the time that had proper plant been available, 100 tons of payable ore could have been mined per day. Unfortunately the mining equipment available was minimal and the workings was frequently interrupted by flooding. Later trials proved the mineralisation zone to extend for 2 miles to the south-east of Achanarras Hill, and several smaller off-shoots of the vein were also discovered,.. The mine closed in 1919. Thin veins are sometimes found in the spoil material at Achanarras Quarry. (Omand 1972) 20.
A copper bearing vein is said to have been worked on the coast south of Old Castle of Wick ND 371 487 Explorer 450 in the 15th century (Crampton and Carruthers 1914), or 1760 (Omand 1972).
Tweedie (1979) reported minor uranium mineralisation from the Helmsdale Granite and also noted Cu-Mo mineralisation in the Ord Burn.
In 1914, C B Crampton discovered a vein of barytes over 6 feet wide at Roy Geo near Lybaster. ND 270 352 Explorer 450. It is in the notch of the geo and is about 4 feet wide in the cliff face, with a north-west trend and dip of between 70º and 80º to the north-east. Later, during the First World War, this vein was worked for its barytes by means of two shafts 50 feet and 75 feet deep, and a 40 foot long adit at beach level. Inside the mine the vein increased in width to a maximum of 9 feet. In the four-year period 1915-1918, some 2450 tons of barytes were won. (Omand 1972) 19.
Trewin, N H and Hurst, A 1993 Excursion Guide to the Geology of East Sutherland and Caithness. Geological Society of Aberdeen. Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh. 32-35
At Ousdale ND 067 204 where the north end of the A9 road cutting bares an outer of the Helmsdale granite. Here, small cracks in the granite are filled with Blue John. Blue John is a relatively unusual blue variety of colourless mineral Fluospar , CaF4 and owes its colour to trace impurity of the element manganese. (Omand 1972) 17,
At Achvarasdal, Reay NC 986 647 Explorer 449, there is a large mineralised vein some 500 yards long which was exploited between 1870 and 1873. The iron ore, mainly hematite was worked by means of three shallow shafts, sunk in the vein. However it seems the vein was as not as rich as had been hoped, as only one boat load of 150 tons of selected ore was ever taken from Sandside harbour, which had been specially built to ship ore from the mine. (Omand 1972) 19.
In 1804 Sir John Sinclair was advertising the mining rights of a recently discovered mineralised vein in the Hill of Sour, Skinnnet, north of Halkirk. The vein is 12 inches wide and is mainly galena (PbS), togther with some iron pyrites and barytes.In the 1960s a second mineral vein has been discovered on the Hill of Sour. This is on North Calder Farm on the western slope of the hill, and it contains about 12 inches of pyrites. (Omand 1972)
Williams 1 365-6 copper veins at Old Wick
Williams 1 369-370 copper ores found at Currie, county of Edinburgh.
Anon 1976 What to see in East Fife/Twelve trails for walks or drives. Standing Council of East Fife Preservation Societies. No page numbers. From Pittarthie Castle, take the road to Cupar, where it is possible to see some old mine workings. NO 37 14
Anon 1981 Fife Coastal Walk/Walk No 5 Kingsbarns to Crail. Wemyss Environmental Education Centre. no page nos, Walk No 5 illus, disused mine, filled in.
Pearson, John M 1992 Around North East Fife. privately printed? 44 In the 18th century lead and silver were mined on the East Lomond and in 1852 a gold rush on the West Lomond quickly petered out. NO 21 06 Landranger 58 & 59
Thomson, R H 1994 Mine Modification. [following an article in the August issue on Birkhill Fire Clay Mine. Scots Mag 152 (12) Dec 602
See Oldham, Tony 2005 Mines of South Western Scotland for full details.
The Barytes Association: http://www.barytes.org/
Mineralogy Database: http://webmineral.co/data/Barite.shtml
Auchencairn Mines NX 817 484 Explorer 313
Salvona, Jim 2002 Glenhead Ironstone Mine, Auchencairn, Dumfries & Galloway. GSG Ser 4 1 (3) 28
Young, Ivan 2004 More Mine Hunting in Galloway, Bull GSG Ser 4 2 (2) 36
Auchencairn History Society: http://www.auchencairn.org.uk/history/PatonHistory.htm
Blackcraig Mine NX 440 649 Explorer 319.
Green and Todd 12
Colvend Mine NX 869 538 Explorer 313.
Green and Todd 12
Williams 1 370-2 copper veins in cliffs.
Carsphain see Woodhead
McCormick, Andrew. 1932 Galloway / The Spell of its Hills and Glens. John Smith & Son (Glasgow) Ltd. 283 pp, illus. 74 Carsphain leadmine.
Creetown see Pibble
Drumruck Mine NX 581 628 Explorer 312
Green and Todd 12
Enrick Mine NX 618 552 Explorer 312
Knockibae Lead Mines NX 188 665 Explorer 310
Crae, John. 2001 Caves, Cairns, Tunnels, Passages and Pits, Part 2. GSG Ser 4 1 (1) 40
Lauchentyre Mine NX 559 572 Explorer 312
GSG 4 Ser 1 (3) 37-38, 1 (4) 47
Pibble Mine NX 525 607 Explorer 312.
Wulfenite M&M (1) 28; Green and Todd 112
Woodhead Lead Mine NX 513 936 Explorer 318
Campbell, Anna 1994 June The Woodhead Lead Mine [in] Scottish History 31-34
Defoe, Daniel 1991 A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain. Abridged and Edited by P N Furbanks and W R Owens. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. Letter XII 325 “we discover’d in several places evident tokens of lead-mine” [At Drumlanrig NX 852 993 Explorer 321, north of Dumfriess]. This is Defoe’s only mention of mines or ores in Scotland, although he describes both in other parts of Britain]
Donnachie, I 1971 The Industrial Archaeology of Galloway. David & Charles, Newton Abbot.
Floyd, James D 1979 Some unrecorded mineral trials in Kirkcudbrightshire. Trans DGNHAS 54 149-152
Foster-Smith 1967 The non-ferrous Metal Mines of South West Scotland. Northern Cavern & Mine Research Society Individual Survey Series Publication No 2, December 25 S.
Sasson, J, 1969 Leadming at Woodhead, Carsphairn. Trans DGNHAS 46
Williams, James, 1976 The Minerals of South West Scotland. Bull Hist Met Group 10 (1) 36-40
*GLASGOW AREA INCLUDING ARRAN
Anon 1997 Arran and the Clyde Islands / a landscape fashioned by geology. British Geological Survey. 20 Limestone mines at Corrie. Coal at Laggan Cock of Arran. Barytes at Glen Sannox.
Beadman, D R, et al 2002 Design and construction of a tunnel above abandoned mine workings: the Roughcastle tunnel, Falkirk, Scotland. Mining Technology 111 (12) 99-105
Black, B J ed 1973 Excursion guide to the geology of the Glasgow district. Geological Society of Glasgow. 36-37, Fig 6. Coal mining in the Linn of Baldernock. NS 600 750 .Landranger 64. Heads of Ayr Sea Caves NS 280 180 Landranger 70. p95, Fig 20
Downie, R Angus 1933 All About Arran. Blackie & Son Ltd, London and Glasgow.62-63 Barytes mining on Arran. “This mine was originally opened in 1839 and was worked until 1862, when “the barytes mill, which marred the solitary grandeur of the scene which opens as we reach the plateau at the mouth of the glen, was entirely removed by order of the Duke of Hamilton”. In 1918 it was reopened, and in 1920 work was begun again in earnest. A new shaft was then sunk, and a light railway and a new pier in Sannox Bay were built. Of recent years [1930?] the buildings have been considerably extended, and another shaft has been opened upon the hillside to the north. Over 10,000 tons have now been raised. Only the water power of the Sannox is used in the working of the mine. Barytes, when milled, is employed in the manufacture of paint as a substitute for white lead.”
Firsoff, V A, 1950 The “Oolies” of Arran. Scots Mag 54 (2) Nov 147-152 Ooly of Oolie is a local term from the Gaelic ulaidh meaning treasure, particularly hidden treasures. 147 Sannox Barytes mine, 149 16th & 18th century iron bloomeries. Copper, gold and silver were also obtained in this way. 150 Iron pyrites and gold.
Grant, Will, 1927 2nd edition enlarged 1951 The Call of the Pentlands / A land of Glamour and Romance. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh and London. 46 “In the wood between Stoneypath and Linton above the old Inn there is a place called “The Siller Holes”, because it is the traditional site of silver mines, …”.
Lawson, Judith A & Lawson James D 1976 Geology explained around Glasgow and south west Scotland, including Arran. David & Charles. Newton Abbot. p 73 Linn of Baldrnock limestone mines NS 600 750 Landranger 64. p 148 Glen Sannox Barytes Mine, Arran. NS 007 452 . p 150-151 Corrie Limestone Mine NS 030 440 graphite from the blue-black limestone in Glen Fruin, barytes mine beside Kilmannan Reservoir, gold from Lomondside quartz c1880, vein of silver near Dungoil in the Campsies, abandoned Cononish lead mine, immediately northeast of Ben Lui. Test results show that the Cononish mine can produce on average 11.3 grams of gold and 60.1 grams of silver for each ton of processed rock. 148 A curious find was a small population of almost colourless common frogs living in the semi-darkness of a partially flooded barytes mine near Kilmannan Reservoir
MacGregor 103 1972 limestone mines in Corrie Harbour. 114 Sannox Barytes Mines. ¾ of a page.
McKerrow, W S, & Atkins, F B, 1989 2nd ed Isle of Arran / A field guide for students of geology. The Geologists Association. 53-54 The baryte of Glen Sannox.
Shaw, Richard P, June 1977 Arran Barytes Mine, Glenn Sannox, Isle of Arran. Bull PDMHS 6 (5) 209-217
Skillen, Brian 1985 The mines of Campsie. Strathkelvin District Libraries, Bishopbriggs. 65, location maps, surveys etc.
Tindall 254 Sannox Barytes Mine
Vernon, R W 1997 Mining Heritage Guide. NAMHO, Matlock Bath, Derbyshire. Friends of Scottish Mining Museum 18; Scottish Mining Museum, Lady Victoria Colliery, Newtowngrange, Midlothian, EH22 4QN. Opened in 1984, open March to October 10.00 to 16.00 Tel 0131 663 7519 Fax 0131 654 1618 Take A7 south from Edinburgh and follow signs to Newtowngrange. Lady Victoria Colliery was the showpiece of the Scottish Coalfields from its opening in the 1890s. An audio-visual presentation “Talking Tableaux” describes the day in the life of a miner in the pit village and underground . Guided tours take the visitor round the Grant Richie steam winding engine and the pit head. Other exhibits describe the hard working conditions the miner endured. The tour of the site includes a visit to a “mock-up” of a modern coal face.
Afton Lead Mines NS 624 006 Landranger 77 Near New Cumnock
MJ 1860 Minerals under estate of. New Cumnock, Ayrshire, iron, coal and lead, 482 (advert- minerals to let).
The NGR is in a hilly area some mile from the nearest road.
Auchalton Lime Works NS 330 040 Flooded Mines
Sillers Holes NT 144 534 Landranger 72 West Linton
[from the web] Where the track branches off to Stonypath farm a stone cairn bears a panel which describes more about the history of the area. Looking towards West Linton you can see the hollows of old mine workings. Evidence show that lead was once mined and smelted here but the name Siller Holes means Silver Holes and suggests that silver may have been extracted here at one time.
Inverarrish Ironstone Mine [=Raasay Iron Mine] NG 553 340 - NGR NG 569 371 Landranger 32
Draper, Laurence and Pamela. Supplemented edition 2003 The Raasay Iron Mine 1912-1942 / Where enemies became friends 79 pp, 22 plates, 10 tables, 6 plans, 4 figs. Contrary to the Geneva Conventions, German Prisoners of War mined iron ore just off the coast of Skye in Scotland. SB Dingwall: The Authors.
Gribble, C D 1983 Mineral resources of the Inner Hebrides. Proc Roy Soc Edin, 83B 611-625. 613 Raasay iron. 613 Islay lead.
Boyd, J Morton and Boyd Ian L 1990 The New Naturalist The Hebrides. 349 Raasay iron. 350 Islay lead.
Haswell-Smith 131 iron mining by Baird & Co using German prisoners of war [a war crime?] closed 1919. 132 location map.
Industrial Heritage - Industry People Transport. 27 (1) Spring 2001 Iron Mining on the Isle of Raasay, Scotland by Rota. The massive iron deposits were discovered during surveys carried out before the Great War. During the 1914-18 war they were worked by Baird Ltd who mined 140,000 tons underground and 12,000 tons opencast. The mine was entered by the main adit at 330 feet above sea level. From here the ore was lowered down an incline for 1¼ miles to a 4,000 ton ore bin, where it was taken by steamer to Glasgow for smelting. The mine closed in 1919 and in 1941 all available scrap metal was recovered for armaments. The headings were 12 feet wide by 8 feet wide and until recently one was still open. The article is illustrated by 8 fine photos and 3 maps.
Warwick, Chris 2005 Some Caving Notes. GSG Ser 4 2 (4) 25 Raasay Iron Mine. Gated, but can easily climb over. Three hour trip hundreds of metres of passage.
WL Oban 1936/7 100 Raasay Iron Mine
Struy Lead Mine, Strathglass. aka Strath Glass Mine. NH 375 381 Landranger 26 wulfenite
Anderson, George and Peter Anderson 1863 Fourth edition. Guide to the Highlands and Western Islands of Scotland including Orkney and Zetland. Adam & Charles Black, Edinburgh. 589-590
M&M (1) 28; Green and Todd 16
Russell, A, 1946 An account of the Struy Lead Mines, Inverness-shire and of wulfenite, harmotome, and other minerals which occur there, Mineralogical Magazine (27) 1470-154
Islay, pronounced eye-la, is the most southerly of the major islands of the Inner Hebrides, it forms part of the Strathclyde region of Scotland. Access is by the Caledonian-Macbrayne ferry from Kennacraig on the Mull of Kintyre which makes three trips daily in the summer. The distilling industry dominates the island’s economy; agriculture, fishing and increasingly, tourism are also important.
Sulphide mineralisation is sporadically distributed throughout the Islay limestone. A number of lead mines around the village of Ballygrant were exploited on a relatively small scale until the beginning of the century; Callendar and Macaulay 1984. The ore is a mixture of lead copper and zinc sulphides distributed in veins and pockets in limestone, calcite is the main gangue mineral; Wilson 1921. Examination of the dumps of Mulreesh Mine NR 402 688 and South Ardachie Mine NR 396 633 shows little of interest.
Callender, R M 1980 The Lead Mines of Islay. Professional Photographer 20 October. not seen
Callander, [=Callender] R M 1985 reprint The Ancient Lead Mining Industry of Islay. No 6 in a series [pub] Museum of Islay Life. In 1975 Dr Callender was awarded a Kodak Bursary so that a “comprehensive documentation could be made of the ancient lead mining industry in Scotland”.
Green, David I 1988 The Minerals of Rhuba a’Mhill, Islay, Scotland. M&M (4) 29-31 illus. Follow the path south-east through the Bunnahabhainn Distillery and around the of Rhuba a’Mhill. About 30 m south of the headland at NR 424 731 is an area of limestone stained by green copper secondary minerals.
Haswell-Smith 35, “In 1798 ... mines of lead mixed with copper, ...a strata of iron called Bog Iron, veins of emery, some quicksilver and lead. Lead and silver were being mined in the 19th century near Port Askaig, with copper and manganese also present.”
Martin 339 Pb
Williams 1 303 the mines of Islay are in limestone…1 368 lead and copper on Islay
see Oldham, Tony 2005 Mines of South Western Scotland
[Enrich] Near Gatehouse, in Flech [=Fleet?], in Kirkcudbrightshire, at the private grounds of Cally, copper ore has been worked. Captain Treweek, of the Mona mine, visited Scotland, and formed a company for the purpose of working the mine. The veins were not very regular in these first trials, being disordered and split into branches. Hunt 122-123
The Lanarkshire Mining Industry/History of Mining [coal].
Aitken 1894 The Hilderston Silver Mine, near Linlithgow. Trans Fed Inst of Mining Eng. vi 193-198 not seen
Atkinson 1619 The Discovie and Historie of the Gold Mines in Scotland. Bann\tyne Club 1835 not seen
Goodchild, J G 1898 Notes on the Minerals of the Hilderston Mines, Linlithgow. Trans Edin Geol Soc not seen
Jeffreys, Alan L. 2002 Going Down or Is the bottom dropping out of the property market? GSG Ser 4 1 (2) 35-40. Mines around Edinburgh: Gilmerton; Straiton Shale Mine S; Bryan’s Split Mine [Fordel Mine] NT 364 672 A 137 m; S
Jeffreys, Alan L. 2002 Bowden Hill Mine. GSG Ser 4 1 (1) 43
McAdam, A D, and Clarkson, E N K, 1986 Lothian Geology / an excursion guide. Edinburgh Geological Society. 214-215.
Meikle, T K, 1994 Native silver from Hilderston Mine, West Lothian., Scotland, Jl Russell Society 5 (2) 83-90
Peach, B N et al 1910 The Geology of the Neighbourhood of Edinburgh. Mem Geol Surv . Edinburgh HMSO. 352-353
Smith, R, & Meikle, T K, 1998 The Smelting of Silver Ore from Hilderston Mine, Linlithgow, Scotland. Mem NMRS 61 5-19
Hilderston Silver Mine Silver and lead ore discovered in 1606 at Hilderston. Ancient account of the discovery. Mines nationalised by King James VI. Foreigners brought to work the vein. No profit after nationalisation. Mine let to private firm-much pilfering-ill-will of inhabitants-cost of King’s operations. Abandonded after 1614, reopened in 1873 and 1896 but no silver ore found. Nickel ore discovered. Lists of ores and minerals. Observations on the venture. [from]
Cadell, Henry M, 1925 The Rocks of West Lothian / An Account of the Geological and Mining History of the West Lothian District. London, Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd.
King Jamie’s Silvermine at Hilderston, Bathgate 1606-1613
http://www.sasaa.co.uk/case%20studies%209.htm accessed 2.03.07
Anon ND [1960s] Montrose / A Royal Burgh. 63 & 65. “The largest of the mines in Glenesk [Glen Esk], NO 53 77 Landranger 44 was worked for more than a century on the same hillside as this whisky bothy. It was Sir David Lindsay, the builder of the pleasance at Edzell Castle, NO 583 692 Landranger 44 who started mining in the glen. He brought two experts from Germany and gave them a monopoly of the mineral rights. There was copper near Dalbrack NO 470 782 Landranger 44, quicksilver in Glenmark [Glen Mark] NO 36 84 Landranger 44 gold at Invermark, NO 438 805 Landranger 44, iron at Dalbog NO 588 719 Landranger 44, and the most productive of all was this silver and lead mine on Craig Soles [or Soales], overlooking Tarfside NO 490 799 Landranger 44. The remains of the working can still be clearly seen”. Landranger 44
Fraser, Duncan 1974 Glen of the Rowan Tress and other stories. Montrose, Standard Press. 17 Glenesk, iron and copper. Dalbog, iron.19 Glen Mark, lead. 19 Gilfumman, lead. 37, 38 Craig Soales, silver.
Fraser, Duncan 1979 Portrait of a Parish [St Cyrus]. Standard Press, Montrose. Limestone mines, between East Mathers and Johnshaven. NO 790 665 Landranger 45
Gibson, Colin ND [c1956-59] Summer on Tayside. A Dundee Museum and Art Gallery Publication. 21
Illsley, William Allen 1977 The County of Angus. The Third Statistical Account of Scotland. The Herald Press, Arbroath. 169 Parish of Lochlee by M F Michie. 169-170 Glenesk, two copper mines in 1593. Iron was smelted at Bonnie Catie on the Rowan. On Craig Soales is a lead mine, near Clash ma Roy..
Michie, Greta and Lenman, Bruce 1972 The Miners of Glenesk. Scots Mag 98 (2) 104-113, illus. In the 17th century the debt-ridden laird of Edzell saw in the reputed silver and other minerals of Glenesk a means of reviving his fortunes.
Martin 355 The Inhabitants say there are Mines of Silver, Tin and Lead in the Main Land, South Ronalshaw, Stronsa, Sanda and Hoy.
Shearer, John, Groundwater W, and MacKay J D, 1966 The New Orkney Book. Nelson, London. 101-102 “There are records of lead being worked in South Ronaldsay, Hoy, Graemsay, and Stromness where the opening into the old lead mine was a familiar feature to the youth of Stromness in the early part of this century when it served as an improvised shelter for the bathers at Warbeth. All these workings, however, had closed down before the end of the eighteenth century. Copper was worked in the early part of the eighteen century at Wha Taing in Burray, and in Rousay may be seen filled-in shafts of what were, presumably, trial workings for copper. Copper minerals in minor amounts have been reported in Yesnaby. Ores of both iron and manganese were worked in the latter half of the eighteenth century in the island of Hoy. The manganese ore was won from an ore-body situated 200 feet below the top of a 900-foot cliff. All these workings have been abandoned and there is little likelihood of renewal of operations in any metaliferous ores in Orkney”.
*RENFREWSHIRE – see also under GLASGOW
MUIRSHIEL MINE NS 282 649 Landranger 63 Paisley
Marked Mine (dis) on Landranger 63. This defunct baryte mine lies in an area of rough moorland, Queenside Muir, in the Renfrewshire Heights, about 6 miles north-west of Lochwinnoch village. It can be reached by walking along a good track for two and a half miles beyond the Muirshiel country park car park. Near where the road crosses the river Calder, upstream of the car park, the ruins of a Victorian grinding mill can be seen. The mine itself is obvious as an artificial gully on the hillside.
The mine was closed in 1969 having worked almost continually for two hundred years. Initially, exploitation was by open casting on the main vein, which is aligned NNE-SSW in a fault crush zone. This has resulted in three striking excavations, one above the other, known as the Lowest, Intermediate and Highest Opencasts.
In 1947, the Muirshiel Barytes Co sank a steeply inclined shaft, following the dip of the Main Vein, from the Intermediate Opencast. Levels at 110 feet, 310 feet and 410 feet were developed. A second vein, the East-West vein, was discovered in 1951. This was worked from a vertical shaft in the Lowest Opencast, sunk near the intersection of the two veins in 1958. The East-West vein was developed on the 210, 310, 410, 510, 600 and 660 feet levels. Concrete slabs now mark the position of the shafts.
Prior to 1960, when the operations were taken over by Anglo Austral Mining Ltd, there was no mechanisation, and the tubs of baryte were pushed along underground rails manually. The new owners introduced electric winding gear, battery locomotives and mechanical loaders. They also erected a dressing plant at the mine because of the poorer quality of spar in the East-West Vein. Processing on site had previously been unnecessary because of the excellent quality of the North-South Vein baryte, which was sent direct to Glasgow. In the years from 1962 to the closure in 1969 Rio Tinto Zinc were responsible for production.
Total recorded production was 291,702 tons, the highest tonnage for a single year being 16,987 tons in 1964. Up to forty eight men were employed, though only about eleven were skilled miners, the remainder being underground maintenance staff and surface workers. Laurence, D W A 1974 The Muirshiel mine. The Western Naturalist (3) 15-18.
Riley, Helen, MacGregor, Andy and Urquhart Christine, April, 2005 Renfrewshire Heights potential Special protection area. Scottish Nature Heritage 14.
Todd, J Gordon and Laurence, David W A. 1989 Muirshiel Mine, Central Scotland. M&M (7) 40-43 minerals
Anderson, George and Peter Anderson 1863 Fourth edition. Guide to the Highlands and Western Islands of Scotland including Orkney and Zetland. Adam & Charles Black, Edinburgh. 824 copper ores.
Flinn, D. (1989) Travellers in a Byegone Shetland. Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh. Not seen
Flinn, D. (1990). Richard Trevick, Arthur Woolf and the Shetland mining Company. J. Trev. Soc. 17, 23-30. Not seen
Flinn, Prof Derek is listed as Honorary Senior Fellow at Liverpool University’s Department of Earth & Ocean Sciences. He wrote the BGS memoir `Geology of Yell and some neighbouring island in Shetland’. He has also published a number of papers on Shetland mineralogy, and one or two on historical subjects. Googling, flinn shetland mines” produced 225 hits.
Haswell-Smith 337 copper ore in Copper Geo
Haswell-Smith 389-390 The sand in the Wick of Houble is magnetic and at Moo Wick at the tip of Lambhoga there is a residual deposit of kaolin. At Hesta Ness in the north-east the serpentine has been altered to antigorite and steatite. Here too there are bands of pure talc which was mined at one time.
Haswell-Smith 395 Haaf Gruney, near Uyea. a disused chromite mine.
Haswell-Smith 398 Unst, coarse-grained gneiss which is sometimes studded with garnets. The serpentine has veins of iron chromite. Unst has the only surviving talc mine in Britain.
Hibbert 33 Fair Isle, vein of copper ore 6” wide.
Hibbert 82 Fitfiel Head, vein of iron-mica 8 feet wide.
Hibbert 83-84 Garthsness a bed of iron-pyrites 8½ feet wide.
Hibbert 105-106 old shafts, worked by Welsh miners 1780s. Brown haematite, copper-pyrites, and sparry iron-stone were found. In the course of 2 years 470 tons of copper-ore were exported to Swansea.
Hibbert 162-164 Note IX Sandlodge Mines p 105 shafts 22 fathoms deep.
Hibbert 318-319 discovery of chromite of iron on Unst, used as a yellow pigment.
Tindall 47 Unst, talc quarries, sepentine mines.
Alva Silver Mine, NS 88 97 Landranger 58 Silver Glen, Alva [NE of Stirling], Clackmannanshire
First worked in 1715, the Alva Silver Mine is the richest deposit of native silver ever found in Great Britain. Native silver occurs as dendritic crystal aggregates to several cm, associated with clinsafflorite and rammelsbergite in a dolomite-baryte-calcite gangue. Moreton, S 1996 The Alva Silver Mine, Silver Glen, Alva, Scotland. Mineralogical Record 27 (6) 405-414
Palmer, William T, 1947 The Verge of the Scottish Highlands. Robert Hale Ltd, London 148-149 “Ochil Silver. The silver yield of the Alva mines two centuries ago was startling. The Silver Glen between Middle and Wood hills made £4,000 a week for Sir John Erskine. The Government’s attention was drawn to the valuable veins of ore, two of which were particularly rich and produced in a few week 134 ounces of the richest silver, as assayed and tested by no less a personage than Sir Isaac Newton, then Master of the Mint. In 1715 Sir John entered a perilous adventure to bring back the Stuarts. He left his wife in charge of the mines and of forty tons of silver ore buried in the grounds of Alva House. The rising failed and Sir John was outlawed. To buy back the Government’s favour he sent information about his silver ore, and in the winter of 1716-7, a Mint expert reported that:
“I found it (the ore) of an extraordinary nature, such as to my knowledge few or none like have ever seen in Europe. It consists of sulphur, arsenic, iron, some lead and good silver. Of all these the silver is only to be regarded, for the other minerals and metals contained in the ore are of little value, and not worth the charge to separate and keep them”.
“The treasure-trove is said to have produced £40,000 to £50,000, but Sir John did not prosper, the output diminished, and the mines soon came to an end.”
Anon 1963 Alva Silver
Mines. Alloa Advertiser
Anon ND Alva Silva Mines. Northern Notes & Queries or The Scottish Antiquary 1 (4) 53-55
Dickie, D M, and Forster, C W, Editors, assisted by Mrs E Lumsden, J Ritchie, A Roy and R Woodburn. 2nd ed 1974; reprint 1986 Mines and Minerals of the Ochils. Clackmannanshire Field Studies Society. 43, maps, illus. Airthrey Silver Mine, Alva Silver Mines, John Erskine’s Mine, Carnaughton Glen Mines, Blairlogies Mines, Burn of Sorrow Mine, Tillicoultry Mines, Daiglen Mine, Balquharn Mines, Jerah Mines, Myreton Calcite Workings.
Edie, William L, 1924 Precious metals of Scotland, prospecting and where found. Kirkcaldy. Fifeshire Advertiser 39. Brief mention of Alva silver 14-16. Source Brown 1980
Francis, E H et al 1970 The Geology of the Stirling District. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Scotland. Chapter XIX Economic Geology 292-307. Detailed description of 24 mines with NGRs
Green and Todd 11
Harrison, John G, 2003 Heavy Metal Mines in the Ochils: Chronology and Context. Forth Naturalist and Historian 26 105-118. Bridge of Allan, Allan Water NS 787 983, Airthey Hill Mine NS 8152 9720, Aiirthrey Silver Mine NS 8152 9720, Blairlogie Trials, Jerah Mine NS 8323 9949 & NS 8300 9982, Balquharn Burn Trials NS 8653 9782 the site of Earl of Stirling’s mines c 1607, also worked in mid 18th century. Carnaughton Glen Silver Mine NS 8781 9754, Alva Silver mine, Tillicoultry NS 9234 9812, Kirk NS 9124 9780 and Daiglen Burns NS 9106 9834, Dollar Burn NN 9455 0021, Pendreich NS 8065 9922, Western bank of Allan Water NS 787 983. All Landranger 57
Jeffreys, Alan L 2007 The Alva Silver Mines. Ser 4 GSG 3 (2) 18-25, 8 B&W photos, 2 colour photos opp 26, location map, surveys. The definitive work on the currently accessible workings.
M&M (10) IV
Mackay, K J H 1978 Limestone working/a forgotten Stirlingshire Indistry. Forth Naturalisy and Historian 2 80-105, 10 figs, 8 plates. Some underground workings are still open.
Moreton, S 1996 The Alva Silver Mine, Silver Glen, Alva, Scotland. Mineralogical Record 27 (6) 405-414
Palmer, William T 1947 The Verge of the Scottish Highlands. Robert Hale Ltd, London 148-149 “Ochil Silver.
Proctor, John and Bacon, Margaret E 1979 The plants and soils of two mineral workings in the Ochil Hills. Forth Naturalist and Historian 3 71-77, 2 figs.
Scott, Douglas M, May 1997 Mining in the Ochils. Scots Mag 146 (5) 488-492 Alva Silver Mine, Bridge of Allan, Airthrey Silver Mine, Blairlogie Copper Mines, Burn of Sorrow Mine, Mill Glen Trial, Daiglen Mine, Kirk Glen Trial, Balquharn Mine, Carnaughton Silver Mine.
Pennant 1774 327 “...at Loch-Eribol plenty of iron stone and something like a tin mine”. Explorer 446/447
Brora Coal Mines NH 90 70 0371 Explorer 441 Brora, Golspie
Marked on Explorer 441 “Shaft remains of”.
The coal is found in a pocket of Jurassic rocks which are about 160 million years old. Mined intermittently for nearly 400 years, it was initially discovered in outcrops on the seashore and was used to heat sea-water for the extraction of salt, the essential ingredient in the preservation of fish for winter use. Salted herring is still a mainstay of life today. This use is recorded as early as 1529. In 1598, Jane, Countess of Sutherland, opened the first 'bell-pit' type of mine. In 1610 the Countess's son, Earl John, opened up more mines. Some Cornish and, later, Welsh miners were brought in to supplement the local labour force. Mining was a skilled and dangerous business. Fifteen men were killed in a roof fall in the 18th century. Spontaneous combustion occurred frequently, causing fires in the mine. To avoid the risk of explosion, the miners used the phosphorescent heads of fish, instead of candles, attached to their caps. In spite of problems, new shafts were sunk and rails built to convey coal to the salt-pans. The import duty on salt made it a valuable commodity at the time of the European wars. As the supply of coal at accessible levels diminished, a deep pit was sunk at Fasnacally in 1810. An associated brick and tile factory, using local coal, was by then established. Brora bricks were of good quality and were widely used. Some can be seen in the buildings of the Cameron Barracks in Inverness. In 1871, the big event was the opening of the Duke of Sutherland' railway. This allowed Queen Victoria to visit the colliery when she travelled in a train pulled by a small steam engine name the 'Florence'. The Duke had set up an engineering shop in Brora to build and maintain locomotives for the railway. In 1872, he also reopened the colliery and the brick-works, taking them under estate management. Drain pipes and fire-bricks were to be produced, in addition to the building bricks and tiles. Examples of all these can be seen at the Heritage Centre.
In 1913, Captain J M Hunter set up the Brora Electricity Supply company which provided lighting for the houses, shops and streets. It was then that Brora became known as the 'Electric City'. Captain Hunter owned the mine and used the coal to generate the electricity. In 1918 the Manager was Richard Robertson. There were 23 men working underground and 8 on the surface. The Mill Company took over the brick works and the coal pit until 1949. In 1998, the Mill moved to new premises on the southern entry to the town. The distillery also used Brora coal until it converted to electricity in 1960. Following a fire and flooding in July 1960, the coal mine was forced to close. Then the miners took a bold step and bought the mine themselves, with money from the 'Highland Fund'. This kept the colliery in business until 1974 when the import of cheap coal brought about its final closure. The site was filled with rubble and landscaped so that no trace of this busy industry on which the one-time prosperity of Brora so largely depended, now remains.
Adam, R. J. 1972 Sutherland Estate Management.
Bangor-Jones, M 1995 The Early Story of Brora Coal, The Northern Times.
Bentick, C. D 1926 Dornoch Cathedral and Parish.
Campbell, H. F 1920 Caithness and Sutherland, Cambridge University Press
Farey, J (Dep. 314/17 – NLS) 1812 Inverbrora Coal Workings: History of the working and searching for Coal in Sutherland prior to the year 1778 38-52
Fraser, W 1892 The Book of Sutherland.
Gordon, Sir R. A 1813 Genealogical History of The Earldom of Sutherland from its origins to the year 1630: With a continuation to the year 1651, Published from the original manuscript.
Harker, R S 1964 The Brora Coal Field. Trans NCMR (2) 8-14
Hunter, T. M [ND] Industrial History of Brora
Innes, C [ND] Ancient Sutherland Charter, quoted in the Origines Parochiales Scotiae, part ii, p727, 1529, Bannatyne Club, Edinburgh.
Lewis, J et al 1999 The Salt and Coal Industries at St Monan’s, Fife in the 18th & 19th Centuries, Tayside and Fife Archaeological Committee
MacBain, A 1922 Place Names of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland
Mackay, Rev. G 1845 The New Statistical Account of Clyne
Maclennan, J 1971 When Brora Ceased to be a Burgh
Morrison, H 1883 Tourists’ Guide to Sutherland and Caithness with Historical, Antiquarian and Angling Notes
Owen, J. S 1995 Coal Mining at Brora 1529-1974, Inverness Highland Libraries. SB.
Ross, Rev. W 1794 The Old Statistical Account of Clyne
Skillen, B S 1990 Local dreams: the early working of the Brora Collieries. BN (41) 14-18
Townsend, B 1988 How the lure of oil ended coalmining in the North, The Northern Times
Trewin, N H and Hurst, A 1993 Excursion Guide to the Geology of East Sutherland and Caithness. Geological Society of Aberdeen. Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh. 33-34
Wilson, R 1999 A Salty Tale of Brora’s Industrial Heritage, The Northern Times
Wood, A 1976 When Brora Was All Buzz – A History of Energy and Enterprise, Northern Times
National Library of Scotland, Manuscripts Division, George IV Bridge, Edinburgh
EH1 1EW. Tel: 0131-466 2812 Fax: 0131-466 2811 E-mail: email@example.com
© Trustees of the National Library of Scotland
Minute book of the Brora Branch of the National Union of Mineworkers, Scottish Area, 1954-61, and photocopies of cuttings and other documents relating to the Ross Colliery, Brora, the most northerly deep coal mine in the British Isles.
1. Minute book, Brora Branch, NUMS, 1954-61.
2. Photocopies of eleven share certificates in the Ross Pit, 1962-7, issued to Joe Bokas.
3. Photocopies of cuttings from The Northern Times, 1973, relating to the imminent closure of the
pit: and from The Press and Journal,
Item 1 presented by, and 2-3 copied with the permission of Joe Bokas Esq., Brora, Sutherland (through the good offices of Ian MacDougall, Secretary, Scottish Working Peoples’ History Trust).
Aberfoyle Bat Reserve. NN 505 032 Landranger 57 An old slate mine. Gated. 150 yards long. north of Glasgow. Scottish Wildlife Trust N/L (22) 7, 22-23 Aug
1972; N/L (23)
Beinn Odhar Lead Mine. NN 335 333. Landranger 50 Salvona & Young 26
Foss Barite Mine NN 815 545 Landranger 52, At Meall Tairneachan, Aberfeldy.
Cairns, W J and Partners 1980 Dresser Minerals International Inc. Barytes Mining Developmemt, Foss, Perthshire, Scotland. Evironmental Inpact Assessment Vol 1 Summary.
Gaton, Rosalind, 1986 The Foss Baryate Mine, Aberfeldy. The Edinburgh Geologist (19) 20-22 not seen
Green and Todd 25 Foss Mine, Aberfeldy.
Visit to Foss Mine, accessed 18.04.07
A mine at Foss in Perthshire began to produce around 50,000 tons of barytes annually in the mid-1980s, supplying around ¼ of Scotland's offshore oil industry's needs.
Meall nan Oighreag Mine. NN 704 339 Landranger 51 Salvona & Young 14-15 S.
Colin McLeod writes:
I had more success with the cave at Newtyle North Quarry near Dunkeld - the one that had a tinker's legend that it contained a tunnel leading to Dunkeld. I visited it on 3 February. A track from the A984 leads up to the quarry, and a steep indistinct path below the south-east face of the quarry leads to the cave above a jumble of huge boulders. As described in 'Scottish slate quarries', it is a cave about 20 m deep created by quarrying, tapering towards its inner end. The entrance is partly blocked by a cone of quarry waste, so the floor slopes steeply downwards for its whole length. Despite this, due to its high ceiling and large arched entrance, it is very open and light - no torch required. It is much used by climbers for practising overhangs, and the ceiling is covered by their permanently-fixed equipment.
Fleming, Maurice, 1995 The Ghost o’Mause and other tales and traditions of East Perthshire. With a forward by Sir William Macphersson of Cluny. Edinburgh, The Mercat Press. 94-95 The Clutching Hand. Two children get lost in a tunnel and the rats ate one of them, so all that was left was a hand. Tinkers use to live in the entrance to this tunnel It is easy to see how they might have used a story like this to deter their children from playing in it.
Walsh 2000 Scottish Slate Quarries. Edinburgh, Historic Scotland. 77
Tam Lachie’s Cave NR 835 978 (summit) Landranger 57 Dumyat
In fact a mine working on the slopes of Dumyat. Probably from a personal name?
Watson 1995 The Ochils /Placenames, History and Tradition. Perth and Kinross District Libraries. 130
Tullich Mine aka Tomnadashan Mine.
Tullich Mine GSG Ser 4 2 (4) 25 S [refers to GSG Ser 3 1 (4) 29]. Salvona & Young 14-16 S aka Tomnadashan Mine cf.
Bainbridge, Jack 1970 A Nineteenth Century Copper Working. Tomnadashan, Lochtayside. Industrial Archaeology 7 (1) 60-74
Bainbridge, Jack Oct 1980 Lord Breadalbane’s Mines. Scots Mag 114 (1) 38-45, illus. One mile south east of Ardtalnaig, on the south side of Loch Tay at Tomnadashan NN 693 380 Landranger 51 [mainly Cu, not to be confused with Tyndrum]
Goodenough, Kathryn 1999 Tomnadashan Mine NN 693 380 Landranger 51 Site if Special Scientific Interest. Earth Science Management Brief Project. 33. illus, 12 photos.
Tyndrum Lead Mine: NN 33 30 Landranger 50
Anderson, George and Peter Anderson 1863 Fourth edition. Guide to the Highlands and Western Islands of Scotland including Orkney and Zetland. Adam & Charles Black, Edinburgh. 32-33
Bowman, J E 1986 The Highlands and Island / A Nineteenth Century Tour 210 pp, illus. HB DW Alan Sutton, Gloucester. 65-66.
Laughlan 1982 109
MacKenzie, A B and I D Pulford 2002 Investigation of contaminated metal dispersal from a disused mine site at Tyndrum, Scotland, using concentration gradients and stable Pb isotope ratios. Applied Geochemistry 17 (8) 1093-1103
Mining Magazine November 1989 p 353 et seq, there is the comment: Lead mining at Tyndrum began in the mid-eighteenth century and continued intermittently until 1858 by which time several thousand tonnes of lead ore had been recovered at grades believed to be of the order of 5-10% Pb. The veins had been mined through a vertical interval of 230 m and the last attempt to re-open the mines was in the early 1920s. Ennex's Cononish gold property is located about 3 km southeast of the village of Tyndrum at the site of the East Anie lead mine which exploited a southwesterly striking vein structure accessed by two adits driven into a cliff-face. In 1984 rock sampling near the adit portals and subsequent trenching over the adjacent hill-top showed the presence of gold and spurred Ennex to launch a 10-hole drilling programme at the end of 1985 southwest along the strike of the lead vein structure. Gold was encountered in all holes down to a depth of 50 m but, with the exception of two holes, values were disappointing.
MacNair, Peter 1914 Perthshire. University Press, Cambridge. Chapter 13 Mines and Minerals 85-90 Tyndrum, Glen Lochay, Tomnadashan, [Loch Tay], Corries Buie, Ochils, Aberfoyle etc.
Pattrick R A D 1985. Pb-Zn and minor U minalization at Tyndrum Scotland Mineralogical Magazine 49 671-681.
Pennant 1774 215 Lead mine at Tyendrum.
Salvona & Young 26.
Treagus, J E Pattrick, R A D and Curtis, S F 1999. Movement and mineralization in the Tyndrum Fault Zone, Scotland and its regional significance. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 156, 591-604.
Treagus, J E 2003 The Loch Tay Fault: type section geometry and kinematics. Scottish Journal of Geology 39 (2) 135-144.
Wilson, G V et al 1921 Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain. Vol XVII The Lead, Zinc, Copper and Nickel Ores of Scotland 160 pp 15 fig. Tyndram pp 1, 3, 4, 93-99.
Young, Ivan 2004 Tyndrum Lead Mines GSG Ser 4 2 (1) 13-20, illus surveys, map. Definitive work.
Williams 1 366-8 copper at Kissern and at Loch Kissern.[=Kishorn]
Toby Speight’s pages, accessed 17.04.07
The Kishorn Mines - A Brief History
The four mines (two copper, though one non - productive, and two iron) all occur in the Durness Limestone (Ordovician in age - 490 million years old) which outcrops in the Kishorn area. Unfortunately, there are no known records as to the yields of any of the mines, or for that matter, where the ore was taken for smelting or for what it may have been used. Furthermore, they all appear to have been fairly low key and short lived operations for one reason or another. Taking them in chronological order, they are: Rassal Copper Mine, Lower Sanachan Copper Mine, Tornapress Iron Mine, Upper Sanachan Iron Mine. There are described on the following website. Accessed 17.04.07
*WANLOCKHEAD / LEADHILLS
Elvan Water: Alluvial Gold Workings NS 907 164
Anon ND Museum of Lead Mining Wanlockhead Take Home Some Scottish Gold A4 brochure folded into 3.
Anon 1989 All about Wanlockhead/A brief history of Scotland’s Highest Village.23pp. Wanlockhead Museum Trust.
Green, David I 1990 Veszelyite a mineral new to Britain, from Wanlockhead, Scotland. M&M (8) 6-7 illus.
Green and Todd 9-11
Lamarra, Paul 2006 The Forgotten Benefactor of Leadhills. The Scots Magazine 164 (3) March
Jackson, Brian 1991 Rescue collecting - a means of mineralogical conservation. Earth Science conservation (29) 20-21 June. Veszelyite found. Straightsteps high level and Hopeful vein both at Wanlockhead.
M&M (9) 4 reclamation; M&M (2) 4-7 various minerals; M&M (8) BMC 7; (8) 6-7 New Glencrieff Mine. M&M (5) 11-12; M&M (7) 12 Straitsteps Vein.
Neall, Tom 2005 Cassedanneite from Lady Anne Hopetoun Shaft, Leadhills, Scotland [NS 8806 1416]. M&M (26) 29-30 illus.
Pickin, John 2006 Streaming and Hushing for Scottish Gold: The Archaeology of Early Gold Working at Leadhills and Wanlockhead. Bull PDMHS 15 (4/5) 83-86, 4 figs.
Reekie, Bob 2001 A special place [Wanlockhead] The Edinburgh Geologist (36) 18-21
Trevelyan, W C, 1833 Atkinson on the Gold Mines of Scotland. Archaeologia Section 4 1847 402-404. In 1642 a German - Sir Beves Bilmer, [sic] worked the gold mines at Crawford Mouer [Manor?] at Leadhilles [sic], and at the silver mines at Hilderstown and Tartraven, two miles south of Linlithgow. NT 000 730 Landranger
Vernon, R W 1997 Mining Heritage Guide. NAMHO, Matlock Bath, Derbyshire. 72
Whyte, Ian & Kathleen 1987 Exploring Scotland’s Historic Landscapes. 39. 40-52 a good account of Leadhills and Wanlockhead. [filed under S W Scotland]
Young, Ivan 2007 Three Tunnels Under West Lothian. GSG Ser 4 3 (2) 26-37, surveys, photos etc.
L c800 m. Height varies 1.2 m to 1.70 m in first 220 m
Park Farm Drainage Tunnel NT 02907 77042 A 73 m L 135 m
Ratho Mains NT 135 703 Threshing Mill Chamber and Tunnels. L c470
All located on Landranger
Latest revision 19.4.07, 20.04.07